This compartment of the exhibition represents the anthropogenic period, ie the appearance of man, contemporary plants and animals, suggesting the beginning of human interaction with nature. The exhibition has the form of a conventional cave that allows the illustration of both the process of knowing and capitalizing on the environment, as well as the first results of these actions (author C. Iudin). The mural painting in this compartment (author A. Bulichov) represents a symbolic image - the exit of the man from the cave and the transition of the communities to the sedentary way of life. The first transformations of nature by man are observed through the practice of agriculture, which also indicates a beginning of its submission. The bones of the first animals domesticated by man confirm this process. Of particular significance is the skeleton of a cave bear. Initially totemized by man because it provided shelter, later this animal was exterminated, becoming one of the first creatures sacrificed because of man's reckless attitude.